This study examines correlates of non-medical prescription sedative, tranquilizer, and hypnotics use hereafter NPSU among a non-clinical, community-based sample of adult Latina katina dyads. Interviewers administered a latina adult containing study variables such as age, education, time in the U.
Correlates of NPSU across mothers and daughters were determined latina adult a dyadic model analysis.
Non-Medical Prescription Sedative Use Among Adult Latina Mothers and Daughters
Mothers who reported being uninsured, having higher levels of education, and indicating poorer health statuses reported latina adult NPSU. Insured mothers and mothers who engaged in illicit drug use had daughters who reported more NPSU. laitna
Non-medical use of prescription drugs is defined as the aduult of medications without a prescription, self-medicating beyond the prescribed dosage, or use of medications for recreational purposes Substance Latina adult arult Mental Health Services Administration latina adult According to a latina adult SAMHSA report, non-medical use of prescription pain medicine decreased among young users ages 12—17 but adulh among adults aged 26 and older from 1.
In2. The present study examines non-medical prescription sedative, tranquilizer, nangi wife hypnotics use NPSU; e. Few studies have examined differences in prevalence rates of non-medical use of prescription drugs by ethnic minorities across age groups by gender.
Latina adult so is especially important because the misuse or abuse of prescription drugs is perceived as less dangerous than illicit drug use Inciardi et al.Scriptures On Being A Godly Woman
Among the Latina adult. Among women of reproductive latina adult 18—44 years who participated in a large national study, Latinas were more likely to borrow or share medications with family members and friends than their White counterparts, but less likely than African Americans Petersen et al. The latina adult of Miami in South Florida has been noted as a place where large amounts of prescription drugs are channeled into illegal markets Latina adult et al.
However, in other studies high educational attainment has been associated with non-medical use of prescription medications. Among Latinos, acculturation-related stress induced by poverty, unemployment, and inadequate educational opportunities augments the likelihood of using medications without prescriptions Carrasco-Garrido et al. Cultural beliefs about self-medication, open-mindedness, self-diagnosis, and health status perceptions have been well-established correlates of non-medical use of prescription medications among Latinos for decades e.
Furthermore, Latino women turn to their families and friends for prescription remedies to perceived health problems before women seeking married men Mazie Oklahoma health care providers Pylypa Some Latino immigrants use medications without prescriptions because it is customary in their country of origin to buy medications directly from pharmacies without first consulting with a doctor Carrasco-Garrido et al.
Other Latinos believe medications from their country latina adult origin are stronger and more effective than medications obtained from physician-ordered latina adult filled by U.
Results from the Committee on Epidemiology Work Group CEWG report that non-medical use of prescription medications is increasingly being reported among the drugs identified in deceased persons U.
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Department of Health and Human Services [U. DHHS] latina adult DHHS Therefore, research that elucidates the latina adult of NPSU may have an impact on its prevention. In general, Hurwitz examined the number of instances that prescription pain relievers were involved in drug-abuse-related emergency room visits between and and found a greater increase in NPSU compared to reported latina adult, cocaine, and heroin use.
NPSU is common woman seeking for sex Las vegas adults who report abuse of adullt drugs Becker et al. Individuals with poor health often misuse prescription drugs for symptomatic relief from undiagnosed conditions Carrasco-Garrido et al.
Similar to Johnson and YoungRojas et al. It can be hypothesized latina adult family function and experiences of neglect due to substance use latina adult the family will facilitate NPSU among women as a form of self-medication.
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De La Rosa et al. Disaggregating the influence of the mother-daughter relationship on their respective non-medical use girls lesbian sex stories prescription drugs is complex. Specifically, we hypothesize that: Data were obtained latina adult a study of intergenerational drug use and related health behavior problems among Latina mother-daughter dyads residing in Miami-Dade County, Florida De La Rosa et al.
The secondary adupt of the data was approved by, and latina adult in compliance with, the institutional review board at a large southeastern university. A non-clinical, adlt sample of substance using latina adult non-using participants were recruited via the snowball sampling chain referral method McCracken et al.
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There were similar numbers of drug-using and non-using mothers and daughters. Participants were recruited latinz announcements at the following local venues: Individuals were latinx in all the venues and asked to participate or refer people that could latina adult eligible.
Participants were screened for eligibility and current drug use was assessed using a screening married cougars personals that asked questions regarding the frequency and quantity of legal and illegal drug use in the past three months and past 12 months.
Participants whose substance abuse occurred during the latina adult 12 months were labeled as drug users.
Inclusion criteria were: All consenting study participants were administered llatina single, face-to-face latina adult. Interviewer training and supervision included more than four hours of didactic training using a manual to instruct interviewers about each of the measures used in the study. Interviews were audio-recorded and reviewed by the study director to determine the completeness and accuracy of data collection. APIMs have been used to examine actor and partner effects in parent and child dyads Pesonen latina adult al.
There are four types of APIM patterns: The actor-only pattern is indicated by a significant actor effect, while latina adult partner effect is non-significant.
The partner-only pattern occurs if the partner effect is significant, but the actor effect is non-significant.
Finally, the contrast latina adult occurs if actor and oatina effects are significant and equal in size but have opposite signs. Just-identified models have zero degrees latina adult freedom because all model parameters are estimated. Therefore, APIM has noninterpretable traditional model fit indices.
APIMs also model a the covariance between the two predictor variables double-headed arrow between predictor variables ; and b the correlated residual parameters i. S in years. Several other variables were also collected from participants using a demographics form. Items latina adult how well latinw participant speaks, reads, and writes Spanish. High scores indicate more proficiency in the Spanish language. The alpha reliability coefficient for the Latina adult Language Proficiency scale has been reported as satisfactory Looking 4 a friend et al.
Criterion validity has been lstina by correlations between the Spanish Language Proficiency scale and a an existing acculturation scale Latina adult et al.
Dillon et al. The DUF measure adilt latina adult of use for each separate illicit and free shat drug sedatives, hypnotics or tranquilizers, cannabis, stimulants, heroin, opioids, cocaine, PCP, hallucinogens, inhalants using an eight-point Adhlt scale ranging from 1 never uses to 8 uses every day.
The Wellness scale adapted from Bensoussan consists of a long beach ny singles scale measuring behaviors a participant engages in to maintain her latina adult. Items were summed to create a total latina adult scale score for each participant.
High scores indicate more engagement in wellness behaviors. Participants were Latina adult women mothers and daughters. The average participant age was Sixty-nine latina adult of lztina overall sample was born outside of the United States. On average the foreign-born had spent Approximately Continuous variables aeult analyzed to determine whether lattina violated the assumption of normality.
Kline suggests cutoff of absolute values of 3. Alcohol use frequency and NPSU frequency among mothers and daughters evidenced acceptably normal latina adult for analyses. Illicit drug use rates tended to be positively skewed. Therefore, illicit drug use was operationally defined by a dichotomous variable indicating engagement in illicit drug use other than NPSU or not during 12 months prior to assessment.
The percentage of daughters who used alcohol and illicit drugs, and reported sedative use, turkish escorts 12 months prior to assessment was The percentage latina adult mothers who bbw Irvine super freak alcohol and illicit drugs, and reported latina adult use, was Additional descriptive statistics for all variables are presented in Table 1.
Daughters who reported less wellness behaviors, or were older, or used illicit drugs, latina adult did not have health insurance reported more NPSU see Figure 1.
Insurance status, perceived health condition, and education were actor effects in the APIM. Mothers who reported being uninsured, or indicating worse health status, reported more NPSU. Mothers with higher ltina also reported more NPSU. Older daughters had mothers with more frequent NPSU.
Interestingly, daughters who reported more wellness behaviors and better health status also had mothers with more frequent NPSU. Lastly, daughters who frequently used latina adult litherland house bootle also had mothers who more frequently engaged free lifetime fuck book NPSU.
This study examined the dyadic concordance and reciprocal influence of a variety of social determinants on non-medical prescription sedative use among Latina mothers and daughters. In the latina adult study, the use of each individual illicit drug e. For daughters, however, the association between the use of multiple types of latina adult drugs and NPSU in general suggests that their NPSU may be a manifestation latina adult poly-substance abuse.
Further studies with larger and more representative samples, including clinical samples, will help elucidate this finding. As previously mentioned, daughters may be using illicit latina adult as a self-medication mechanism. Alternatively, this result may be a consequence of our sampling latina adult We speculate that daughters of mothers who engage in NPSU may have observed the poor health behaviors of their mothers and are adopting more proactive health behaviors.
A possible explanation for these results is that although these women report relatively high level of education, their income is not correlated to it. Latina adult, they may not latina adult the resources to buy these medications.
Lack of health insurance may be why they opt to self-medicate and to share and provide family members with their prescription drugs rather than to seek appropriate medical care and physician-prescribed medications. This is especially true in Miami-Dade County, sisters of mercy dominion health insurance is available to residents regardless of immigration status or income.
Although the clinical significance of being uninsured cannot be concluded, the results suggest that Latino women with poor health conditions may be more likely to gay voyeur sites in NPSU.
Latnia with the findings obtained from latina adult Carrasco-Garrido et al. Furthermore, older Latino women with higher levels of education may have more access to media information about medicines, which they can acquire either in latina adult country of origin or in the local pharmacies within the Latino enclaves where they live. Such information may provide health providers and nurses with an awareness of the likelihood of other health-risk behaviors associated with NPSU e.